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Paradigms and Alignment

  • Amsel A. Behaviorism, Neobehaviorism, and Cognitivism in Learning Theory Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. Hillsdale, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates; 1989.
  • Baker, L.R., Phelan, S., Woods, N.N. et al. Re-envisioning paradigms of education: towards awareness, alignment, and pluralism. Adv in Health Sci Educ 26, 1045-1058 (2021).
  • Baker L, Wright S, Mylopoulos M, Kulasegaram M, Ng S. Aligning and applying the paradigms and practices of education. Academic Medicine; 2019. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000002693
  • Evans N, Levinson SC. The myth of language universals: Language diversity and its importance for cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 2009;32(5):429-48.
  • Hofer BK, Pintrich PR. The development of epistemological theories: Beliefs about knowledge and knowing and their relation to learning. Review of Educational Research. 1997;67(1):88-140.
  • The Learning Scientists.
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  • Millwood R. Learning theory.
  • Newell T. Five Paradigms for Education: Foundational Views and Key Issues. New York: Palgrave Macmillan; 2014.
  • Ng SL, Kinsella EA, Friesen F, Hodges B. Reclaiming a theoretical orientation to reflection in medical education research: a critical narrative review. Medical Education. 2015;49(5):461-75.
  • Schunk DH. Learning Theories: An Educational Perspective (6th ed.) Boston: Pearson; 2012.
  • Seifert K, Sutton R. Educational Psychology: Major Theories and Models of Learning.
  • Sfard A. On two metaphors for learning and the dangers of choosing just one. Educational researcher. 1998;27(2):4-13.
  • Thomas G. Education and Theory: Strangers in Paradigms. Maidenhead: Open University Press; 2007.
  • UCD Dublin. Education theory: Epistemology and learning theories.


  • Carraccio C, Englander R, Van Melle E, Ten Cate O, Lockyer J, Chan Mk, Frank JR, Snell LS. Advancing competency-based medical education: a charter for clinician-educators. Academic Medicine. 2016;91(5): 645-9,
  • McSweeney FK, Murphy ES, eds. The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Operant and Classical Conditioning. John Wiley & Sons; 2014.
  • Pavlov IP. (1897/1902). The work of the digestive glands. London: Griffin.
  • Pavlov IP, Anrep GV. Conditioned Reflexes. Courier Corporation; 2003.
  • Skinner BF. Science and Human Behavior. Simon and Schuster; 1953.
  • Skinner BF. ‘Superstition’ in the pigeon. Journal of Experimental Psychology. 1948;38(2):168.
  • Skinner BF. The Behavior of Organisms: An Experimental Analysis. BF Skinner Foundation; 1990.
  • Ten Cate O. A primer on entrustable professional activities. Korean Journal of Medical Education. 2018;30(1):1-0.
  • Ten Cate O, Chen HC, Hoff RG, Peters H, Bok H, van der Schaaf M. Curriculum development for the workplace using entrustable professional activities (EPAs): AMEE guide no. 99. Medical Teacher. 2015;37(11):983-1002.
  • Watson, J. B. (1913). Watson JB. Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Psychological Review. 1913;20(2):158.


  • Bandiera G, Kuper A, Mylopoulos M, Whitehead C, Ruetalo M, Kulasegaram K, Woods NN. Back from basics: integration of science and practice in medical education. Medical Education. 2018;52(1):78-85.
  • Castillo JM, Park YS, Harris I, Cheung JJ, Sood L, Clark MD, Kulasegaram K, Brydges R, Norman G, Woods N. A critical narrative review of transfer of basic science knowledge in health professions education. Medical Education. 2018;52(6):592-604.
  • Chandler P, Sweller J. Cognitive load theory and the format of instruction. Cognition and Instruction. 1991;8(4):293-332.
  • Cheung JJ, Kulasegaram KM, Woods NN, Moulton CA, Ringsted CV, Brydges R. Knowing how and knowing why: testing the effect of instruction designed for cognitive integration on procedural skills transfer. Advances in Health Sciences Education. 2018;23(1):61-74.
  • Chomsky N. Explanatory models in linguistics. In: Nagel E, Suppes P, Tarski A, eds. Stanford,Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics. California: Stanford University Press, 1966; pp. 528-550.
  • Chomsky N. On the nature, use, and acquisition of language. In Ritchie WC, Bhatia TK, eds.Handbook of Child Language Acquisition. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1999; pp. 33-54
  • Chomsky N. Poverty of stimulus: Unfinished business. Transcript of a presentation given at Johannes-Gutenberg University, Mainz. 2010 Mar 24.
  • Evans N, Levinson SC. The myth of language universals: Language diversity and its importance for cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 2009;32(5):429-48.
  • Mylopoulos M, Borschel DT, O’Brien T, Martimianakis S, Woods NN. Exploring integration in action: competencies as building blocks of expertise. Academic Medicine. 2017;92(12):1794-9.
  • Roediger III HL, Karpicke JD. Test-enhanced learning: Taking memory tests improves long-term retention. Psychological Science. 2006;17(3):249-55.
  • Smith MA, Karpicke JD. Retrieval practice with short-answer, multiple-choice, and hybrid tests.Memory. 2014;22(7):784-802.
  • Sweller J. Cognitive load during problem solving: Effects on learning. Cognitive Science. 1988;12(2):257-85.

Cognitive constructivism

  • Block J. Assimilation, accommodation, and the dynamics of personality development. Child Development. 1982;53(2):281-95.
  • Chin DB, Dohmen IM, Cheng BH, Oppezzo MA, Chase CC, Schwartz DL. Preparing students for future learning with teachable agents. Educational Technology Research and Development.2010;58(6):649-69.
  • Dewey J. Democracy and Education: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education. Macmillan; 1923.
  • Dewey J. Experience and education. The Educational Forum. 1986;50(3):241-252.
  • Kapur M. Examining productive failure, productive success, unproductive failure, and unproductive success in learning. Educational Psychologist. 2016;51(2):289-99.
  • Kapur M, Bielaczyc K. Designing for productive failure. Journal of the Learning Sciences.2012;21(1):45-83.
  • Lin X, Schwartz DL, Bransford J. Intercultural adaptive expertise: Explicit and implicit lessons from Dr. Hatano. Human Development. 2007;50(1):65-72.
  • Mylopoulos M, Brydges R, Woods NN, Manzone J, Schwartz DL. Preparation for future learning: a missing competency in health professions education?. Medical Education. 2016;50(1):115-23.
  • Mylopoulos M, Woods N. Preparing medical students for future learning using basic science instruction. Medical Education. 2014;48(7):667-73.
  • Piaget J. The Origin of Intelligence in the Child. Routledge and Kegan Paul; 1953.
  • Schwartz DL, Bransford JD, Sears D. Efficiency and innovation in trans-fer. In Mestre J, ed.Transfer of Learning. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing; 2005, pp. 1-51.
  • Schwartz DL, Martin T. Inventing to prepare for future learning: The hidden efficiency of encouraging original student production in statistics instruction. Cognition and Instruction. 2004;22(2):129-84.
  • Wadsworth BJ. Piaget’s Theory Of Cognitive And Affective Development: Foundations Of Constructivism. White Plains, NY, England: Longman Publishing; 1996.
  • Woods NN, Mylopoulos M. How to improve the teaching of clinical reasoning: from processing to preparation. Medical Education. 2015;49(10):952-3.

Social constructivism

  • Brown JS, Collins A, Duguid P. Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher. 1989;18(1):32-42.
  • Collins A. Cognitive apprenticeship. In Sawyer RK, ed. The Cambridge handbook of the Learning Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2006, pp. 47-60.
  • Collins A, Brown JS, Holum A. Cognitive apprenticeship: Making thinking visible. American Educator. 1991;15(3):6-11.
  • Collins A, Brown JS, Newman SE. Cognitive apprenticeship. Thinking: The Journal of Philosophy for Children. 1988;8(1), 2-10.
  • Daniels H, ed. An Introduction to Vygotsky. 3rd ed. New York: Routledge; 2017.
  • Daniels H. Vygotsky and Pedagogy. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge; 2016.
  • Lave J. Situating learning in communities of practice. In Resnick LB, J. M. Levine JM, & S. D. Teasley SD, eds. Perspectives on Socially Shared Cognition. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; 1991, pp. 63-82.
  • Robbins P, Aydede M, eds. The Cambridge Handbook of Situated Cognition.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2008.
  • Vygotsky LS. Mind In Society: The Development Of Higher Psychological Processes. Harvard University Press; 1980.
  • Wenger E. Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 1998.
  • Wenger E, McDermott RA, Snyder W. Cultivating Communities of Practice: A Guide to Managing Knowledge. Harvard Business Press; 2002.


  • DeCarvalho RJ. The humanistic paradigm in education. The Humanistic Psychologist.1991;19(1):88-104.
  • Knowles, Malcolm S. Self-Directed Learning: A Guide for Learners and Teachers. New York: Association Press; 1975.
  • Maslow A. Some educational implications of the humanistic psychologies. Harvard Educational Review. 1968;38(4):685-96.
  • Maslow AH. A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review. 1943;50(4):370.
  • Montessori M, Carter B. The Secret of Childhood. Calcutta: Orient Longmans; 1936.
  • Montessori M. To Educate the Human Potential. Ravenio Books; 2015.


  • Freire P. Pedagogy of the Oppressed, translated by MB Ramos, introduction by D Macedo. 30th Anniversary Edition. London: Continuum; 2007.
  • Kumagai AK, Naidu T. Reflection, dialogue, and the possibilities of space. Academic Medicine. 2015;90(3):283-8.
  • Paradis E, Whitehead CR. Louder than words: power and conflict in interprofessional education articles, 1954-2013. Medical Education. 2015;49(4):399-407.
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