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We argue that the ICMJE guidelines, although a starting point, cannot alone support potential authors to engage in ethical authorship practices. Guidelines alone are insufficient because the concept of authorship is neither universal nor static; it means different things to different people and evolves over the course of the research.

Guidelines cannot address all practical issues that may arise in authorship ethics. For example, how do we define a “substantial contribution?” And how do we make nuanced decisions about authorship order?

Everyday research practice is situated within complex and dynamic social and cultural relations. Therefore, we will consider how to integrate knowledge of authorship guidelines with everyday experience and the influences of culture, power, and relationships.

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